PNPM Mandiri program
This book was sponsored by the PNPM Mandiri program. The goal of PNPM Mandiri, Indonesia’s National Program for Community Empowerment, is to reduce poverty. PNPM Mandiri was established by the Indonesian government in 2007 to act as an umbrella for a number of pre-existing community-driven development programs, including the Urban Poverty Program and the Kecamatan Development Program, as well as a number of other community-based programs that were managed by nineteen technical ministries. By 2009, PNPM Mandiri was operating in every sub-district in Indonesia.
PNPM Mandiri aims to empower the poor in rural and urban areas through a community-driven development approach. Under this approach, funds are directly channeled to community groups so that the community as a whole can work together to prioritize their development needs and to implement investment projects.
PNPM Mandiri is committed to increasing the participation of all community members in the development process, including the poor, women’s groups, indigenous communities, and other groups that have not been fully involved in the development process. Invisible People is one way that PNPM Mandiri can reflect on ways to better include marginalized and excluded groups in development.
Donor Agencies and the PSF
Bilateral and multilateral assistance for the PNPM Mandiri program has been forthcoming from a number of donor agencies. The PNPM Support Facility (PSF) was established by the Indonesian government as a means of facilitating the contributions of international donors that support PNPM Mandiri. Contributors to the PSF currently include Australia, Denmark, the European Community, Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. PSF provided financial and other support for the publication of Invisible People, in order to raise awareness of the special needs and aspirations of marginalized and excluded groups.
Subjects of the Book
We would like to thank the people who sat down to tell their stories and put their lives on public display for the publication of this book. Across the country, the people who were approached were amazingly open about the most personal details of their lives, their problems, their hopes, and their aspirations.
When they collected these stories, Irfan and Poriaman explained the purpose of the project and sought the consent of all subjects. The subjects told their stories, often over several days and during several meetings, after which Irfan attempted to recreate their words in a first-person account that conveyed the individual’s ideas, feelings, and voice. In a few cases, subjects wrote their own stories in their own words, which were then edited with the subject and translated. When possible, Irfan provided a written account to the subject so that he or she could check and reconfirm that the account was an accurate representation. Otherwise, he discussed it with them. Subjects were reminded that their accounts would be published and asked to be certain that they had no objection to this. Irfan apologizes if despite this process, inaccuracies or misrepresentations have slipped into the text.
Staff of NGOs, Community Activists and Others
A vast array of people helped facilitate interviews and meetings and provided all sorts of other assistance. A partial list of these people includes Marjorie, Mateo, Marwan and all the staff of Handicap International in Banda Aceh and Takengon; Ricco Sinaga from the Puskesmas (Community Health Center) in Cikini, Jakarta; Imam B. Prasodjo and the staff of Yayasan Nurani Dunia; the members of the band Cispleng and the young guys and women who hang out in Proklamasi; Kamala Chandrakirana, sociologist, author and former Chairwoman of Komnas Perempuan (the National Commission on Violence against Women); Kodar Wusana and Nani Zulminarni of PEKKA (the Women Headed Household Empowerment Program) in Jakarta and the PEKKA field facilitator in Lingsar, West Lombok, Sitti Zamraini Alauthi; Fenny Purnawan, writer, editor and mother of Gana, Smita, Anggita and Oorvi. Agas Bene of the Dinas Kesehatan (Health Agency) in Belu, West Timor; Maria K’lau, an outstandingly dedicated midwife in Belu; Antonia Godelpia Lau, the manager of the Panti Rawat Gizi and all the doctors, midwives, staff and workers at the Puskesmas in Belu; Anne Vincent, Fajar, and Anton Susanto of UNICEF in Jakarta; Nelden Djakababa and Vitria Lazzarini, psychologists from Yayasan Pulih; Piet Pattiwaelapia of the Maluku Refugees’ Coalition (Koalisi Pengungsi Maluku); Nelke Huliselan, a community worker in Ambon; Enrina Diah, a plastic surgeon; Julia Suryakusuma; Richard Oh, novelist and film-maker; Rebekka Harsono, an activist from LADI (the Indonesian Anti-Discrimination League); Pephy Nengsi Golo Yosep and Adi Yosep, activists for the rights of people affected by leprosy in Jongaya, Makassar; Kerstin Beise of Netherlands Leprosy Relief (NLR); Dede Oetomo and friends from GAYa Nusantara (a gay and transgendered rights organization in Surabaya); Irma Soebechi and friends from Perwakos (transgendered rights organization); Nig and friends from US Community (a gay and lesbian rights organization in Surabaya); Ayi Na, previously at UNICEF in Mangkowari, Papua; the indefatigable Sister Zita Kuswati at Yayasan Saint Augustina in Sorong, Papua; Connie de Vos, a linguist and specialist in sign languages; Thomas J. Conners, a linguist at Max-Planck-Gesellschaft; Josh Estey, photographer and film-maker; Dian Estey, journalist; Maya Satrini, community worker and friend of the sex workers in Singkawang; Rina, Dewi, Adhe and Yuyun and other sex workers in Jakarta; psychologist Jeanette Murad of University of Indonesia; Alexander Sriewijono, consultant; Mustamin, of the Bajau community in Mola Selatan, Wakatobi; the Forkani environmental protection group on Palau Dupa; Veda and Rili Djohani of The Nature Conservancy; Ani Himawati in Jogja; Ayu Sastrosusilo; all of the people from Humana, an organization advocating for the rights of street children in Jogja; Muhammad Zamzam Fauzanafi, visual anthropologist; Mbak Diah, an activist filmmaker, and all the other people at Kampung Halaman in Jogja.
Sujana Royat, the Deputy Minister for Poverty Alleviation
The project would not have been possible without the support of Sujana Royat, the far-sighted Deputy Minister for Poverty Alleviation in the Department of Social Welfare. In addition to being a driving force behind the Indonesian government’s involvement in the PNPM Mandiri program, he has worked tirelessly to raise the profile of Indonesia’s invisible people and to include them in the development process though his active support of PEKKA and a number of the people, groups, communities, and programs described in this book.
Staff of PSF
Nor would the publication of Invisible People have been possible without the patience, tenacity, and kindness of Threesia Siregar, of the World Bank’s PNPM Support Facility. The support of Victor Bottini, Ela Hasanah, Sentot Surya Satria, Inge Tan, Lisa Warouw, Rumiati Aritonang, Nency Armando Syariff, Juliana Wilson and all other staff at the PNPM Support Facility. In addition to providing his introduction, Scott Guggenheim, of AUSAID, kept the project alive with his wisdom, cynicism and sense of humor, editing the English language text and making sensible suggestions throughout the project.
Design, Translation, Publication
Erick Sulistio used his extraordinary talents as a designer to transform the words and images in this book into a visually impressive final product. Sila Wikaningtyas worked long and hard to produce profound and sensitive Indonesian translations of the text, which was originally written in English, as well as a number of personal accounts written by the subjects. John McGlynn, of the Lontar Foundation, provided excellent advice and input regarding the publication and distribution of the book.
Poriaman Sitanggang, Photographer
Poriaman has worked as a freelance photographer since 1985. He has held a number of photo exhibits, including Indonesia – Famous People (1993), Batak Faces (1994), Dani: The Forgotten People (1997), Manila: The City of Contrasts (1999), The Song of Arini: The Eastern Indonesia People (2001), and Burning Borneo (1998-1999). His work has appeared in a number of magazines and books, including Kain untuk Suami (“A Cloth for My Husband”) (2004), which he produced with his wife, Fenny Purnawan, and Picturing Indonesia, Village Views of Development (2005). Poriaman is currently working on a book on Indonesia’s great literary figure, the late Pramoedya Ananta Toer.
All the photographs in this book were taken by Poriaman, with the exception of those taken by Irfan on the following pages: [these page numbers are obviously no good] p. 22 (Benk Benk Art’s); p. 24 (the Sanggar); p. 26 (Apay); p. 29 (Rifky); p. 30-31 (young people at harm reduction meeting); p. 32 and p. 35 (Megi Budi); p. 40 (Laminah); p. 48 (Musinah); p. 50-51 (women’s literacy class); p. 106 (Mading); p. 120 (Reza); p. 151 (Kolok Getar); p. 154 (Kolok Subentar); p. 162-163 (signing sequence); p. 198 (Erni Bajo); p. 210 (Ai Anti Srimayanti); p. 214 and p. 217 (Heri Ridwan); p. 220 (Inceu); p. 224 and p. 225 (Pak A’ab and his father).
Irfan Kortschak, Author
Irfan (email@example.com) studied Indonesian Area Studies at the University of Melbourne, and International and Community Development at Deakin University in Australia. He is a writer, translator, photographer, and long-term resident of Jakarta. His previous publications include Nineteen: The Lives of Jakarta Street Vendors (2008) and In a Jakarta Prison: Life Stories of Women Inmates (2000). He is currently engaged in writing assignments and consultancy work for NGO’s and development agencies in Indonesia.